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Психологи шутят






The Models of Comprehension of the Mechanisms of Training Technology


I. Imedadze, K. Chigogidze, L. Ugulava


It is well-known that the formation of the personality and the spiritual growth is a complex process implying unconscious and conscious attitude towards oneself and the surrounding people and environment. This process takes place on the basis of the regulations, among which the interrelation of the figure and background, as one of the methods explaining the process of the personality and spiritual growth of a human being attracted our attention. We arose out of the fact, that any relations and cognition of the phenomena surrounding us, communication and comprehension of the new information occurs according to the scheme of the relations of the figure and the background. Namely: individual is the carrier of the figure and background at one and the same time in the form of the dispositional context and the outer stimuli. The relations of the figure and the background are of the dynamic nature, which means the transformation of the background into the figure and vice versa, particularly in the course of the communication. The existence of such a condition is a must for the successful spiritual and personality growth of a human.

Arising out of the said above, interrelation of the dispositional context (background) and the various stimuli (figures) inspiring the negative, positive or the neutral attitudes are based on the principle of the formation mechanism of the attitude; And in particular according to one of the aspects of the attitude, such as contrast and assimilation. (Contrast and assimilation are the adaptation mechanisms of adjustment of an individual to the environment).

As cognition and interrelation mostly mean verbal stimuli and meaningful attitudes, we decided to check the work of the above mentioned mechanism on the basis of the interrelation of the verbal context (background) and meaningless sound combinations (figures) having the positive, negative and neutral coloring.

Our hypothesis for the experiment was, that the meaningful context, or the background is not the only conditioning factor in the formation of the meaning of the unknown word or the emotional stimuli or figures in the verbal context. Formation of the meaning of the unknown word on the basis of the verbal context is the result of the complex interrelation among the sound of the word and the meaningful context and it can be revealed via the adaptation mechanisms of the set, such as assimilation or contrast.

For studying of this problem we decided to use the Semantic Differential by J. Osgud, but we were not interested in the place of the word in the semantic space; Our aim was to evaluate the material, the sound combinations and contexts according to the principles of the negative, neutral and positive assessment. For this purpose we took the scale of one factor; it was the factor of assessment.
We used 7 pairs of the antonymous adjectives:
Funny — Dull

5 words and consequently the 5 micro-contexts were taken from the languages of Zulu and Bantu
The words were: Chakanaka, Kirundi, Nigotta, Sherelabu and Ovivere.
Micro-contexts were the sentences with an omitted word.
They were:
1. I have seen a lot of things during my long life…
2. Before me was standing a man, having an… expression.
3. It was clear, that for those people it was not new to…
4. They always understood, that…
5. On all the levels of civilization it was clear, that…

Each word was in its turn inserted into the context by the subjects.
Every word separately, word in the context, and contexts with the omitted words were evaluated according to the SD scales. During the first experiment the subjects estimated the isolated words and the contexts with the omitted words. After a week they estimated the words being inserted in the different contexts. We repeated the experiment for the five times according to the number of the words. Each time the words were inserted in different context, so that each word could participate in every context. Between the experiment the interval comprised a week. We wanted to give time for the subjects to forget the previous feeling.

The statistical processing of the material the general mean of every word and context were specified, it means, that we found their places on the seven — point scale. For stating the degree of the validity of the differences we used the T criterion of Student.

The unknown words occupied the following places on the seven-point scale:
1. Chakanaka» — 3.8
2. Kirundi — 3.9
3. «Nigotta» — 4.1
4. Sherelabu» — 4.2
5. «Ovivere» — 4.5

As we see two words acquired the negative meaning, one neutral and others more or less positive.
The meaningful contexts were distributed as follows:
1. I have seen a lot of things during my long life… — 4.1
2. Before me was standing a man, having an… expression — 4.5
3. It was clear, that for those people it was not new to…- 4.55
4. They always understood, that…- 4.6
5. On all the levels of civilization it was clear, that…- 3.7

As we see, we have five contexts or backgrounds and five words or figures stimulating different from each other attitudes. During the interrelation or adaptation to each other the adjustment of the meaningful context with the emotional coloring of the word is based on the certain regularities and principles. If we regard the context as a background, then the words or figures are organized with respect to the contexts as follows:
1.The most positively estimated word «Ovivere» is comprehended a bit more positively against the positive background and is assimilated by the negative and neutral backgrounds.
2. «Sherelabu» is assimilated by the negative and neutral backgrounds. The assimilation process by the neutral background is so strong, that it goes beyond the neutral zone and approaches the negative one. We called this process the super assimilation.
3.The word «Nigotta» having the neutral estimation is assimilated by the positive and negative backgrounds, but against the neutral background it becomes negative.
4. " Kirundi» having the negative estimation does not change against the positive background, is assimilated by the neutral and gives the contrast result against the negative background.
5. The word " Chakanaka’ having the negative estimation is assimilated by the positive background, though the assimilation is not strong enough to make it positive or even neutral, it only becomes less negative. It slightly changes against the neutral background and becomes even more negative against the negative background.
The results confirm the general effect of the set regularities and its adaptive mechanisms of contrast and assimilation. The results enable us to make the following analyses:
A human being comprehends most of the lexical material by means of the context. On the basis of the context is perceived and formed the meaning being represented in the context. The process of comprehending of the figure, here the word by means of the context is a complex process of the interrelation of the meaningful context and the emotional coloring of the stimuli. We must underline the fact, that the role of each component changes and alters under different conditions.

There are cases, when the stimulus is conditioned by the context and vice versa. In some cases the context assimilates the stimuli or tears it away, in other cases the stimuli assimilates and tears away the context. This process can be explained by the principles of contrast-assimilation of the set. The sound or the figure is sometimes assimilated by the context, in other times it resists the influence and does not change. Very often this process is performed by means of contrast, which may have the qualitative as well as the quantitative character. In case, the result of interrelation of the meaningful context and the sound complex of the word we accept the qualitative contrast — the meaning we comprehend on the basis of the context and the sound of the word is comprehended as a contrast meaning to its initial one.

The results of the experiment enable us to make the following conclusions:

  • During the interrelation of the two positive elements of one and the same intensity the positive comprehension becomes slightly intense.
  • Neutral and negative backgrounds in any case more or less assimilate the positive word.
  • Pairing of the two neutral units gives the negative result.
  • Pairing of the two negative elements gives the result of contrast.
  • The positive word is assimilated by the negative and neutral backgrounds, but the negative and neutral words are not assimilated by the positive background.
  • Negative and neutral backgrounds and figures are more stable and rigid and less flexible, less sensitive and have the ability to resist.
  • Positive backgrounds and figures are less stable and more flexible and sensitive to changes.
  • Pairing of the similar elements makes their comprehension more intense, or works as a contrast.
  • The more the difference between the background and the figure, the stronger it is assimilated by the background.

  • The achieved regularities, reflecting the expedient functioning of the psychic can be applied to all kinds of behavior for changing it and transforming the attitudes. Thus, we considered the above-mentioned regularities worth maintaining for comprehending and coping with the behavioral problems, especially during the training sessions, as the work of a trainer is a complex process, as the trainer has to evaluate and analyze the process of the training permanently and regulate the course of this process. Though experienced trainers as a rule successfully deal with their work very often without comprehending and thinking about the work of the above mentioned dispositional mechanism, but starting trainers need more time and experience for coping with the hard moments commonly being encountered during the training process.

    Preparing and educating of the trainers mean teaching to them of the various technologies and regularities and we think the empirical results interpreted in the terms of the set theory may enrich the process of preparation of the trainers, as we regard it as a model of regulating of the training situation. The main aim of the training is the regulation of its process, rhythmic exchange of the figure and background and transformation of the emotional coloring for forming and reserving the dynamic balance of the training situation. F. E. When the participant of the training works out the negative attitude towards the process or any stimulus, for transforming him/her into the positive condition instead of instant usage of the positive stimulus, which can cause the tearing away, because of its contrastive influence, according to the above obtained results we offer the following intervention scheme: negative>neutral>positive stimulation.

    When the training situation reaches its culmination earlier that it is planned and it is difficult to strengthen the positive effect and keeping of the process in the condition of culmination for a long period is impossible, we offer the following intervention scheme: positive>slightly negative >neutral>positive stimulation. (For strengthening of the positive condition it is necessary to strengthen inclination to the positive be means of contrast, which in the future due to the inertia or momentum will give more positive effect).

    In case the participants of the training stay in the indifferent condition for a long time and experience difficulties to comprehend the training situation positively we offer the following intervention scheme: neutral >negative>neutral>positive stimulation.

    We hope the results having been given by us in the form of the conclusions will enable to make more and interesting intervention schemes and have the practical value for preparing the young trainers, as it will ease the comprehension of the regularity of the training dynamics schematically and implement it into practice.



    This experimental work covers the problems of the interrelation of the background and figures and the mechanisms of their adaptation to each other. The experiment being carried out showed, that the above-mentioned process can be explained in terms of the Set Theory and its adaptive mechanisms – Contrast and Assimilation. The revealed regularity can enrich the technology of conducting trainings by the intervention schemes, thus making the process more flexible and successful. It will also help the starting trainers to comprehend one of the mechanisms of the regularity of regulation of the training and ease their work.


    Information about the Authors

    Imedadze Irakli — 57, Ph. Doctor in Psychology, Director of D, Uznadze Institute of Psychology, Professor, Academician.

    Spheres of Interest: History and Methodology of Psychology, General Psychology, Psychology of Personality, Pedagogical Psychology.


    Chigogidze Ketevan — 56 Ph. Doctor in Psychology, Research - Fellow of D. Uznadze Institute of Psychology, Professor, Trainer of Trainers.

    Spheres of Interest: Psycholinguistics, Psychosomatics, Psychology of Personality, Psychodiagnostics., Criminal Psychology, Crime Prevention, Psychotherapy of Distressed Children, Methodology and Training Technologies.


    Ugulava Lamara — 54 Research-Fellow of D.Uznadze Institute of Psychology, Assistant –Professor, Trainer of Trainers.

    Spheres of Interest: Psychology of Sports, Medical Psychology, Psychodiagnostics, Methodology and Training Technologies, Prevention of Drug-Addiction in Juveniles.

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